Subject Research GuideCommon citation styles used at ORU are listed on this guide along with publication information and selected Web resources, including style guides and citation examples. Consult the official handbook for a comprehensive list of examples and documentation style. The most current edition of a style manual is on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC. IFor help, inquire at the Reference Desk. Always refer to the print style guide for complete citation formats and descriptions.
Related guide: Plagiarism, Zotero

Featured Resources:

Scientific Style and Format Online: The CSE Manual New

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Why do you need to write citations?

"Academic writing differs from everyday writing in the fact that it carefully documents its sources through the use of citations, which enables the reader to see what has inspired the writer and to check the validity of their work."

Once you have found sources for your research, you will need to document them giving writers credit for their work and their writings. Any source of intellectual property that contributes to, informs, or inspires your own work needs to be acknowledged. For example, when you paraphrase or summarize someone's ideas, or use someone's exact words by quoting them, you must acknowledge, by documentation, those works and the author. Taking or using another person's ideas, language, words, etc., as your own is plagiarism.

A  "citation" is a short note that documents your source(s) of information. It provides the reader with identifying information so that they are able to access the original source.

Where do you put citations?

A proper citation has two components for documentation of sources:

WITHIN THE PAPER — This may be a footnote, endnote or parenthetical reference and is placed next to each quote or paraphrase in order to document its source. When you refer to another's work, cite your source.

AT THE END — This is a comprehensive list of all the works used in the research project. It is often referred to as Works Cited (MLA), Reference List (APA) or Bibliography (Turabian), depending upon the style format that is used.

Additional Notes

arrow Format, content, and/or word order for documenting sources within the text differs from that at the end of a paper.

arrow Always follow the guidelines in the appropriate style manual and your professor's instructions.

arrow Refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions. The most current editions of style manuals are on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC. 

Citation Style Sample Comparions

Citation styles vary according to discipline. For example, an English paper requires MLA style while a psychology paper requires APA style.

Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits and NibblersThe content and order of information varies with each style, as shown in the examples below. (Note: Please check the official print manual for proper formatting guides, including indentation rules. No indentation is used in the examples below.)

 

APA (6th ed.)
  Berenbaum, M. (1989). Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Chicago (Author-Date, 15th ed.)
      Berenbaum, M. 1989. Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
MLA (8th ed.)
  Berenbaum, M. Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
Turabian (6th ed.)
  Berenbaum, M. Ninety-Nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.